The following formatting conventions should be used when you incorporate quoted material directly within your manuscript from any third-party source, including books, journals, websites, etc.
If using a direct quote and the quoted text is under 40 words, simply use quotation marks to indicate the material, and either:
- Include a narrative citation by adding the author’s last name(s) with the publication year in parentheses before the quoted material, and the page number in parentheses after the quoted material, or;
- Include a parenthetical citation with the author’s last name(s), the publication year, and the page number in parentheses after the quoted material.
NOTE: If the year is not provided in the source, use “n.d.”