Quick Guide: Citations – APA – Page 5

APA Style: Paraphrasing

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only need to include reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text citation. Although it is not required, APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number.

In the following example, the author summarized an article with an unknown author [The Wall Street Journal. (1994, January 10). Investors Have a New Tool for Judging Issuers’ Health: Cash-Flow Adequacy.] and cited the original source directly within the text. In a case like this where no author is listed, include an abbreviated article title/website title in quotation marks, or book title in italics. In general, when you are missing a key piece of information, you’ll need to include another detail that will allow the reader to identify the source.


A Cash-Flow Based Rating System

Fitch Investors Service, Inc., a New York based credit-rating agency, recently unveiled a new cash-flow based rating system. The rating system compares net free cash flow, defined as earnings available to pay debt after interest costs, taxes, and capital expenditures have been considered, to the average amount of debt maturing over the next five years. This rating system is thought to provide a useful early warning system for corporate bond investors. A high rating indicates the company should have continuing liquidity, while a low rating generally indicates that the company may have to raise additional financing (“Investors Have a New Tool,” 1994).

If you are unsure whether your paraphrasing of another author’s writing meets Cognella’s publication criteria, please ask your project editor for our toolkit on paraphrasing successfully.