Quick Guide: Citations – CMOS – Page 2

Quick Guide Citations

Chicago Manual of Style: Quotes

The following formatting conventions should be used when you incorporate quoted material directly within your manuscript from any third-party source, including books, journals, websites, etc.

If using a direct quote and the quoted text is relatively short, simply use quotation marks to indicate the material and either:

  1. Include the author’s last name(s) with the publication year and the page number in parentheses before the quoted material, or
  2. Include the author’s last name(s), the publication year, and the page number in parentheses after the quoted material.

Example 1

Insufficient use of force exposes officers to harm or death, negatively affects an officer’s ability to enforce the law, and increases the danger to public safety. Fyfe (1987, 6) concludes that unnecessary force “could be avoided by measures such as better training, officer selection, and other use-of-force options.”

Example 2

Insufficient use of force exposes officers to harm or death, negatively affects an officer’s ability to enforce the law, and increases the danger to public safety. Fyfe concludes that unnecessary force “could be avoided by measures such as better training, officer selection, and other use-of-force options” (1987, 6).